Factoring (IFRS 9)

Factoring of trade receivables is by far the most common transaction entered into by non-financial entities that requires assessment against the IFRS 9 derecognition criteria. Surprisingly, IFRS 9 does not mention factoring in its examples. So here you are:

Example: factoring with partial recourse that qualifies for derecognition

Entity A enters into a factoring agreement and sells its portfolio of trade receivables to the Factor. The face value and carrying amount of those receivables is $1 million and selling price is $0.9 million. After the sale, Entity A absorbs first 1.8% of credit losses of the whole portfolio and the rest is absorbed by the Factor.  The average credit loss on similar receivables in the past amounts to 2% with a standard deviation of 0.2%.

First, Entity A determines that is has transferred its rights to receive the cash flows under paragraph IFRS 9.3.2.4(a). Next, Entity A needs to assess whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards under paragraph IFRS 9.3.2.6(a). In doing this analysis, Entity A calculates expected variability before and after the transfer by modelling different scenarios of credit losses with assigned probabilities based on reasonable and supportable information about past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions. Discounting in this example is ignored for the sake of simplicity.

All calculations presented in this example are available for download in an excel file. You can scroll tables presented below horizontally if they don’t fit your screen.

The variability before and after the transfer is summarised in the following tables:

Before the transfer:

Credit loss fromCredit loss toCash flowProbabilityExpected
cash flow
VariabilityProbability
weighted variability
1.2%1.4%987,0000.13%1,3327,0319
1.4%1.6%985,0002.14%21,0795,031108
1.6%1.8%983,00013.59%133,5953,031412
1.8%2.0%981,00034.13%334,8591,031352
2.0%2.2%979,00034.13%334,177(969)331
2.2%2.4%977,00013.59%132,779(2,969)404
2.4%2.6%975,0002.14%20,865(4,969)106
2.6%2.8%973,0000.13%1,283(6,969)9
total:100.00%979,9691,731

After the transfer (credit loss absorbed up to 1.8%):

Credit loss fromCredit loss toCash flowProbabilityExpected
cash flow
VariabilityProbability
weighted variability
1.2%1.4%14,0000.13%19(3,951)5
1.4%1.6%16,0002.14%342(1,951)42
1.6%1.8%18,00013.59%2,446497
1.8%2.0%18,00034.13%6,1444917
2.0%2.2%18,00034.13%6,1444917
2.2%2.4%18,00013.59%2,446497
2.4%2.6%18,0002.14%385491
2.6%2.8%18,0000.13%24490
total:100.00%17,95195

As we can see, of the original variability of $1,731, Entity A transferred $1,636 (95%) and retained $95 (5%). Therefore, Entity A concludes that it has transferred substantially all of its exposure to the variability in the amounts and timing of the net cash flows (note that no specific % threshold is given in IFRS 9). As a result, substantially all risks and rewards have been transferred and trade receivables should be derecognised. The approach to comparing exposure to variability of cash flows presented in this example is generally accepted by Big4 accounting firms.

As a result of the transaction, Entity A derecognises trade receivables and recognises a one-off derecognition loss in P/L under paragraph IFRS 9.3.2.12. Additionally, Entity A needs to recognise retained credit risk as a liability (IFRS 9.3.2.6(a)). Accounting entries made by Entity A are as follows:

 DRCR
Derecognition of
trade receivables
1,000,000
Cash received900,000
Recognition of
retained credit
risk (liability)
18,000
Derecognition loss
in P/L
118,000

IFRS 9 is silent on the P/L line item in which the derecognition gain/loss should be presented. The classification in P/L should be consistent with classification of proceeds in the statement of cash flows.


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Excerpts from IFRS Standards come from the Official Journal of the European Union (© European Union, https://eur-lex.europa.eu). The information provided on this website is for general information and educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice. Use at your own risk. This website is not affiliated with, endorsed by, or in any other way associated with the IFRS Foundation. For official information concerning IFRS Standards, visit IFRS.org.

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